Immigrants are protected from expulsion by the right to respect for private and family life. But in certain circumstances after a criminal conviction, expulsion may be justified. The ECtHR seems to lower the level of protection in its recent case law.
Human rights accountability in the context of Frontex-coordinated border control operations is being dispersed among the involved parties. Regrettably, this is likely to continue after the establishment of the new European Border and Cost Guard Agency.